Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous soil decomposer and an opportunistic pathogen that is characterized by its large metabolic machinery for acquiring nutrients from media. Lately, an ever-increasing number of genes involved in fungal nutrition has been associated with its virulence. Of these, nitrogen, iron, and zinc metabolism-related genes are particularly noteworthy, since 78% of them have a direct implication in virulence. In this review, we describe the sensing, uptake and regulation process of the acquisition of these nutrients, the connections between pathways and the virulence-implicated genes. Nevertheless, only 40% of the genes mentioned in this review have been assayed for roles in virulence, leaving a wide field of knowledge that remains uncertain and might offer new therapeutic and diagnostic targets.