Gender gap in the energy sector. Evidence from Spain
Ewa Mlodawska, Agata
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The energy transition is at the heart of the current energy debate and its social dimension is becoming more relevant in the latest policy developments. This Master Thesis aims to develop the research on one of the socio-economic aspects of the energy transition by focusing on the gender dimension of human capital in the energy sector. It examines the size of the gender gap in the energy sector and explores its potential drivers using data from the Wage Structure Survey (2010, 2014, 2018). Stemming from the literature review and the descriptive information in our sample, we test the hypotheses on 1) the significance of firm size for the gender pay gap, 2) the impact of the position on the income distribution to determine wage ceiling and floor patterns, 3) the importance of salary supplements for the gender gap in the energy sector. To verify those claims, we compute linear and quantile regression models and provide additional robustness checks. This thorough analysis provides the evidence to support claims that the gender wage gap in the energy sector is mostly driven by differences in salary supplements. Furthermore, it is wider in large companies, which also exhibit ceiling patterns. The obtained results also highlight the complexity of trends in earnings gaps, revealing the differences between base salary and supplements and the pivotal role of company-related variables. Based on those conclusions, we offer policy recommendations for private and public entities.