Physical Activity on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardiovascular Risk in Pre and Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Ruiz Ríos, Maitane
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Importance: The apparent cardioprotective effects of endogenous estrogens to prevent cardiovascular disease in premenopausal women are reduced with the loss of hormonal effects. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) are closely related to physical activity (PA) levels. Objective: This study conducted a critical assessment of studies that analyze the effects of PA programs in CRF and CVRF in women comparing pre and postmenopausal status, through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Evidence Review: Publications from January 1999 to July 2020 assessing the effects of PA intervention in CRF or CVRF. Women of all ages were engaged in most of the studies, regarding PA intervention. Findings: Fourteen scientific articles were included. Great variability was found in PA. All the studies found an improvement in at least one variable. The risk of bias was high, with all the articles obtaining a low methodological quality, except two, which obtained high methodological quality. Conclusions and Relevance: Only one article considered the differences in the menopausal state to observe the effects of PA intervention highlighting the importance of PA in both states. Most of the articles included in this systematic review had a high risk of bias so that new systematic reviews with a low risk of bias are needed. Studies with differentiation in the menopausal state are needed to apply the results to clinical practice.