A rolling stone gathers no moss: Evolution and current trends of Basque nationalism
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Separatism and Regionalism in Modern Europe : 39-71 (2020)
A rolling stone is constantly on the move and ever-changing. It does not gather any moss; it does not fossilize. The metaphor of this proverb serves as an introduction to this chapter in which we shall study a nationalist movement that has undergone major changes throughout its history. We shall present its evolution since its birth, its transformation midway through the 20th century, and the new trends emerging in the 21st century. It is a question of sub-state nationalism, with a solid presence in part of the territory it lays claim to as a nation, the Basque Country, and characterized by a context of political violence. It is here, precisely, where this nationalist movement has undergone a major transformation in recent years, as witnessed by the end of ETA’s activity in 2011 and its self-dissolution in 2018.